The HRA process is a partnership between occupational health advisors, ccupational/industrial hygiene advisors, managers and operational staff with each-depending on the circumstances-using their knowledge, experience and skills to support the HRA process.
AIM OF HRA
What is HRA
• Risk assessment is a process of identifying hazards, determining who will be harmed
and the severity of hazard that might occur and also assessing the likelihood that this
might happen. (Jeyes, 2007).
• A process of evaluating risks to work, safety and health from workplace hazard.
• Careful examination of what in a work place could cause harm to people so that you
can weigh whether you have taken enough precaution.
What is the aim of HRA the?
The aim of occupational HRA is to
(a)systematically and proactively identify health hazards in the workplace,
(b)assess their potential risks to health and
(c)determine appropriate control measures to protect the health and wellbeing of workers.
Health risk assessment involves four key elements:
TYPES OF HRA
A baseline HRA is used to determine the current status of occupational health risks associated with a facility. This tends to be a very wide ranging assessment that encompasses all potential exposures.
An issues-based or targeted HRA
is designed to provide a detailed assessment of specific processes, tasks and areas that have been identified as priorities in the base line assessment.
A continuous HRA
is an ongoing monitoring program or a schedule of regular reviews to determine whether conditions have remained the same, whether changes in processes, tasks or areas have occurred and whether these changes have modified any hazardous exposures and hence any potential health risks. A management of change program can also be considered as being part of a continuous HRA program.
STEPS IN AN HRA
• STEP 1: Identify the hazard
• STEP 2: Decide who might be harmed
• STEP 3: Analyze the risk
• STEP 4: Record the findings, put measures in place to control the risks.
• STEP 5: Implementing and prioritizing actions
• STEP 6: Communicate to staff and other stake holders about findings
• Walk around workplace and take note of visible hazards.
• Investigate complaints from workers.
• Near miss: looking at an incident in which there was no injury or property damage or
is worth of recording.
• Use the checklist used by the work place. Example of findings could be: excessive
noise, marked electrical wires, poor lighting, dust or slippery floors.
• Examine sickness records
• Example of hazards
DECIDE WHO MIGHT BE HARMED.
• Identify people who may be affected by risks or hazards, this will help identify the
best way of controlling the risks.
• The following has to be put into consideration while identifying people at risks:
interns, passersby, general workers, expectant mothers, clients, illiterate’s,
physically challenged, old age, young workers
• Types of assessment includes; qualitative, quantitative and generic.
• How people get harmed by hazards: burns, dislocation, fractures, bruises, sprains,
arm string injury, strains, concussions etc.
ANALYZE RISK AND TAKE ACTION
• Risks= severity *likelihood
• To help in risk analysis a matrix scoring system can be used.
• Numbers are given, assigned to the severity and likelihood of risks and these scores
are multiplied to get the rating for the risks.
• Severity of hazards is expressed in terms and ranging from minor injury to death.
Likelihood of the Risks
• Based on the worst-case scenario ranging from a remote possibility to inevitable
RECORD THE FINDINGS, PUT MEASURES IN PLACE TO CONTROL THE RISKS.
Hierarchy of control measures (make records of findings)
Hierarchy of hazard control is a system used in industry to minimize exposure to
• The hazard control is in order of decreasing effectiveness.
• The most effective measure, (elimination) is on top with the wider base and the least
is at the bottom (PPE)
• This is the most effective hazard control measure.
• The hazard within an environment can be eliminated by removing it E.g.
• The second most effective hazard control.
• It involves replacing something that produces a hazard with something that is less
hazardous or does not produce a hazard at all E.g. replacing manual tools with
automatic machines, using of less hazardous paints
• This is the third most effective means of controlling hazards.
• These do not necessarily eliminate hazards, but rather isolate people from the
source of the hazard
• An enclose creates a physical barrier between people and hazard.
• Refers to the changes the way people work E.g. employee training, installation of
signs and warning labels, procedure changes
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
• This means specialized clothing or equipment worn for protection against health and
• It is designed mainly to protect many parts of the body like eyes, ears, head, feet,
PPE COMES TO THE BOTTOM DUE TO THE FOLLOWING REASONS
• Only protects one person
• Creates a force assurance
• They only protect if they are worn properly
• Difficulty with enforcing their use as employees Shan using them
• PPE requires that ongoing management issues like training, replacement and repair.
• It offers difficulties with fit, use, ergonomics and so on. Carry out a risk assessment
before selecting a proper PPE that would suit the environment
IMPLEMENT AND PRIORITIZING ACTION
• Briefing (safety talks)
• Videos etc.
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